Smoke Alarms and Heat Alarms Buyer's Guide
Smoke Alarms for which rooms?
It can be difficult finding the right type of smoke alarm for a particular room in your house, tenanted property or workplace. Over the years different types have been developed and for good reasons. Fitting the right type of detector in each room will not only reduce false alarms but also identify real fire hazards quicker. Below you will find a list of the type of sensor type you should fit and a brief explanation as to why.
Ionisation smoke alarms
How do ionisation smoke alarms work? Ionisation smoke detectors have traditionally been used throughout properties for many years. Designed to react quickly to fast flaming fires, ionisation smoke alarms are most sensitive to small particles. When fires produce little or no smoke, but the fuel is subject to rapid combustion, the ionisation smoke detector is the quickest to sense its presence. These fires tend to originate from materials such as paper and clothing.
Applications: Stairwells, Landings, Offices
If you are unsure what type of smoke alarm you have installed, see if you can find a radioactive symbol or compartment inside the alarm (if this is accessible). Unlike optical smoke detectors, ionisation smoke alarms feature a tiny radioactive source in the sensor chamber that enables the ionising technology to work. Its quick reaction to small particles can make the ionisation smoke alarm prone to false alarms, particularly when located near kitchens. Because of this, it is recommended that ionisation alarms be installed in stairwells, upstairs landings and offices. This should avoid the occurrence of nuisance alarms when cooking or burning toast!
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Optical smoke alarms
How do optical smoke alarms work? Optical smoke detectors are slightly quicker at detecting slow-smouldering fires that tend to produce a lot of smoke. These fires tend to originate from upholstery type materials or over heated wiring. Also known as photo-electric alarms, this quick response time to smouldering fires is down to the optical smoke alarm's high sensitivity to large particles in the air. The optical sensing chamber effectively "sees" when smoke is present, as the large particles block and cause infrared light to scatter.
Applications: bedrooms, lounges, hallways, offices and landings
Optical smoke detectors are suitable for installation in bedrooms and living rooms where soft furnishings and cables are commonplace. They can also be installed in downstairs hallways as they are significantly less likely than ionisation alarms to sound false when cooking fumes are present from the kitchen. Optical alarms are, however, not suitable for areas open to the elements and very dusty environments.
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What is the difference between ionisation and optical smoke alarms?
Ionisation and optical smoke alarms are two common types of smoke detectors used for fire detection however they differ in their sensing mechanisms and their response to different types of smoke particles. It's worth noting that there are also dual-sensor smoke alarms which combine both ionisation and optical sensing technologies which provide a broader range of fire detection capabilities.
Heat alarms are ideal for installing in kitchens where they are designed to detect a rapid change in temperature. Featuring a fixed temperature thermistor, they are triggered when the temperature inside the room reaches approximately 58°C. This specific heat-sensing technology avoids false alarms altogether, as the unit does not react to cooking fumes and steam.
Applications: Kitchens, Garages
Please always refer to the manufacturer's instructions for the optimum ceiling positioning - typically about 1m from the cooker. Heat alarms are also suitable for installing in garages. Wherever vehicle fumes are present, a normal smoke alarm would become a nuisance with constant false alarms.
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The combined optical smoke and heat alarms contain both optical smoke as well as heat sensing technologies, providing the alarm with the best features from both sensors. Working together, the two sensors intelligently monitor the air for any signs of fire, therefore providing an earlier response and a reduced risk of false alarms in comparison to single-sensor detectors.
Applications: stairwells, landings, offices, bedrooms, lounges and hallways
Their wide response envelope makes the combined alarms suitable for almost all areas of a property including landings, hallways, living rooms and bedrooms. Please note, although the combined alarms are containing a heat alarm, they are not recommended for use in kitchen areas. For kitchens, always install a single heat sensor heat alarm.
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About mains powered smoke alarms
Mains powered smoke detectors and heat alarms contain a back-up battery and confirm to BS 5839 Pt 6 grade D. In the event of a mains failure, the back-up battery ensures that the alarm will continue to power until the mains feed is restored. Alertelectrical.com offers a range of mains powered alarms, where customers can choose from standard alkaline, non-rechargeable lithium upgrade or sealed in lithium back-up battery. Mains smoke and heat alarms with an alkaline battery back-up provide a cost-effective solution.
Depending on how often the alarms are tested, the backup battery will last approximately 12-18 months before replacement is required. Manufacturers recommend for the battery to be replaced every 12 months to ensure a low running battery is not forgotten. Mains powered smoke alarms have the option to upgrade to non-rechargeable lithium back-up battery. Although not sealed in the alarm, the battery will last 10 years before replacement; except for when used with radio interlinked alarms (2-5 years lifespan).
Mains powered alarms are available with a sealed in rechargeable lithium back-up battery. This battery is designed to last the life of the alarm (10 years) and cannot be tampered with during its lifespan. As well as saving costs from replacement, the sealed lithium battery option is ideal for rented properties where the removal of batteries or leaving them to run flat could be an issue.
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What do the different Grades mean?
Mains-powered, interlinked smoke detectors and heat alarms. These are usually powered with a cable from the nearest light fitting. To create an interlink they either require cable connection between the units or a radio-interlink connection. In businesses and larger let properties, these are often combined with manual break points.
With the appearance of ten year sealed smoke alarm units with radio-interlink, these are becoming more acceptable as an alternative to mains-powered, interlinked smoke alarms. Radio-interlinked manual break points are also available. However, we still recommend you check with your Building Inspector Local Council to ensure these alternative alarms are acceptable.